School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
RIP1 kinase inhibitor halts the progression of an immune-induced demyelination disease at the stage of monocyte elevation.
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) underlies many human diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We report here the findings of our study of the CNS demyelination process using immune-induced [experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)] and chemical-induced [cuprizone (CPZ)] mouse models of demyelination. We found that necroptosis, a receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) kinase and its substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent cell death program, played no role in the demyelination process, whereas the MLKL-dependent, RIP3-independent function of MLKL in the demyelination process initially discovered in the peripheral nervous system in response to nerve injury, also functions in demyelination in the CNS in these models. Moreover, a receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase inhibitor, RIPA-56, blocked disease progression in the EAE-induced model but showed no effect in the CPZ-induced model. It does so most likely at a step of monocyte elevation downstream of T cell activation and myelin-specific antibody generation, although upstream of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. RIP1-kinase dead knock-in mice shared a similar result as mice treated with the RIP1 inhibitor. These results indicate that RIP1 kinase inhibitor is a potential therapeutic agent for immune-mediated demyelination diseases that works by prevention of monocyte elevation, a function previously unknown for RIP1 kinase.
Flexible Discovery Unit , GlaxoSmithKline, France
Flexible Discovery Unit , GlaxoSmithKline, U.K.
Discovery and Lead-Optimization of 4,5-Dihydropyrazoles as Mono-Kinase Selective, Orally Bioavailable and Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) Kinase.
RIP1 kinase regulates necroptosis and inflammation and may play an important role in contributing to a variety of human pathologies, including inflammatory and neurological diseases. Currently, RIP1 kinase inhibitors have advanced into early clinical trials for evaluation in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis and neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we report on the design of potent and highly selective dihydropyrazole (DHP) RIP1 kinase inhibitors starting from a high-throughput screen and the lead-optimization of this series from a lead with minimal rat oral exposure to the identification of dihydropyrazole 77 with good pharmacokinetic profiles in multiple species. Additionally, we identified a potent murine RIP1 kinase inhibitor 76 as a valuable in vivo tool molecule suitable for evaluating the role of RIP1 kinase in chronic models of disease. DHP 76 showed efficacy in mouse models of both multiple sclerosis and human retinitis pigmentosa.
Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston
Targeting RIPK1 for the treatment of human diseases.
RIPK1 kinase has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of a wide range of human neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. This was supported by extensive studies which demonstrated that RIPK1 is a key mediator of apoptotic and necrotic cell death as well as inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, human genetic evidence has linked the dysregulation of RIPK1 to the pathogenesis of ALS as well as other inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Importantly, unique allosteric small-molecule inhibitors of RIPK1 that offer high selectivity have been developed. These molecules can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, thus offering the possibility to target neuroinflammation and cell death which drive various neurologic conditions including Alzheimer's disease, ALS, and multiple sclerosis as well as acute neurological diseases such as stroke and traumatic brain injuries. We discuss the current understanding of RIPK1 regulatory mechanisms and emerging evidence for the pathological roles of RIPK1 in human diseases, especially in the context of the central nervous systems.