Diet

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Petr75
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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Fri Dec 27, 2019 10:30 am

2019 Jun
Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
The association between dietary sugar intake and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case-control study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30978652

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon autoimmune disease of the central nerves system (CNS) by inflammatory nature. The effects of high dietary sugar intake on inflammation and dysbiosis have been received more attention in recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various types of dietary sugar intake and NMOSD odds and clinical features.
METHOD:
The current case-control study was conducted among 70 patients with definite NMOSD diagnosis based on 2015 international consensus criteria and 164 hospital-based controls. Demographic and anthropometric information in all participants and disease characteristics just in case group were obtained. Dietary data during the past year of study attendance was collected by a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants were stratified into 3 tertiles according to each type of sugar intake and the third tertile considered as reference in multivariate regression models. The correlation between dietary sugar and disease features were analyzed using Pearson correlation test.
RESULTS:
The mean ± SD of total sugar intake increased from 80.73 ± 17.71 to 208.71 ± 57.93 g/day across tertiles of total sugar intake. In fully adjusted model, lower intake of sugar was associates with decreased odds of NMOSD in the first tertile vs third tertile by ORs of: 0.02(CI:0.00-0.08; p-for-trend:0.00), 0.02(CI:0.00-0.10; p-for-trend:0.00), 0.23(CI:0.08-0.61; p-for-trend:0.00), 0.19(CI:0.06-0.58; p-for-trend:0.00) and 0.16(CI:0.05-0.51; p-for-trend:0.00) for glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose and sucrose, respectively. The odds of NMOSD had a 1.72-fold (CI: 1.43-2.03; p-for-trend:0.00) significant raise per every 10 g increase for total sugar intake. There was no significant correlation between various types of dietary sugar intakes and relapse rate or patients' disability.
CONCLUSION:
The present study proposes a possible direct association between high intake of various sugar types and odds of suffering from NMOSD. More investigations are needed to prove this results.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Jan 18, 2020 5:58 am

2019 Dec 3
Section for Sport Science, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Is diet associated with physical capacity and fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis? -Results from a pilot study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31951862

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Diet may have immunomodulatory effects in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and studies suggest that diet may be considered a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease. The role of nutrition in MS and related symptoms have been reported by several studies but remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE:
To explore the association between dietary intake and physical capacity and fatigue in PwMS.
METHODS:
An explorative cross-sectional pilot study was conducted, in which 23 ambulatory PwMS were enrolled. Dietary intake was assessed using a 4-day food record. Outcome variables included a 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), a VO2max test, and self-reported questionnaires assessing fatigue severity (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS) and impact (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, MFIS). Associations between variables were determined using simple and multiple regression analyses.
RESULTS:
In the simple but not the multiple (adjusted for sex and age) regression analyses the carbohydrate intake (% of total energy intake) was positively associated with physical capacity (i.e. the 6MWT and VO2max test), whereas fat intake (% of total energy intake) was inversely associated with physical capacity. In the multiple regression analyses the absolute intake of ω-3 and vitamin D showed trends towards a positive association with the MFIS physical subscale and VO2max, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
Although not consistent across analyses, these findings suggest that better physical capacity most often is associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and reduced fat content. Further research and randomized controlled trials are required to fully assess the role and the efficacy of diet quality and content on physical capacity in PwMS.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Mon Jan 27, 2020 9:27 am

2020 Jan 23
Doctoral Degree School, Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir, Spain
The Impact of Coconut Oil and Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Levels of IL-6, Anxiety and Disability in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3197930 ... -patients/

Abstract

Background: Due to the inflammatory nature of multiple sclerosis (MS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) is high in blood levels, and it also increases the levels of anxiety related to functional disability. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) decreases IL-6, which could be enhanced by the anti-inflammatory effect of high ketone bodies after administering coconut oil (both of which are an anxiolytic). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of coconut oil and EGCG on the levels of IL-6, anxiety and functional disability in patients with MS.
Methods: A pilot study was conducted for four months with 51 MS patients who were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group received 800 mg of EGCG and 60 mL of coconut oil, and the control group was prescribed a placebo. Both groups followed the same isocaloric Mediterranean diet. State and trait anxiety were determined before and after the study by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, IL-6 in serum was measured using the ELISA technique and functional capacity was determined with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the body mass index (BMI).
Results: State anxiety and functional capacity decreased in the intervention group and IL-6 decreasedin both groups.
Conclusions: EGCG and coconut oil improve state anxiety and functional capacity. In addition, a decrease in IL-6 is observed in patients with MS, possibly due to the antioxidant capacity of the Mediterranean diet and its impact on improving BMI.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Mon Feb 10, 2020 10:42 am

2020 Jan 26
Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 2, Denmark; Hammel Neurorehabilitation Centre and University Research Clinic, Denmark
Diet Quality Is Not Associated With Late-Onset Multiple Sclerosis Risk- A Danish Cohort Study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203536 ... ort-study/

Abstract

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) onset is commonly observed in adults aged 20-50 years of age. The incidence rate of MS-onset after age 50, late-onset MS, has increased along with the observed overall increase in MS incidence rate in the past 60 years. In general, the aetiology of MS is largely acknowledged to involve a complex interrelation of environmental and modifiable lifestyle risk factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Smoking is an established risk factor, while the role of the diet in the aetiology of MS remains inconclusive. However, even less is known about the role of diet and smoking in the aetiology of late-onset MS as this subgroup of patients has not gained much attention in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between diet quality and the hazards of late-onset MS diagnosis in relation to smoking habits, thus attempting to identify high-risk individuals.
Methods: The study was a prospective cohort study based on the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health including middle-aged individuals (50-64 years) born and residing in Denmark. Cox' proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for tertiles of diet quality, assessed by means of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010. Information on time-at-risk and diagnosis of MS was collected based on linked information from the Danish Civil Registration System and Danish National Patient Registry. Additionally, a stratified analysis according to smoking status (current smokers, former smokers and never smokers) was conducted while adjusting for sex.

Results: A total of 56,867 individuals were followed for a median of 20.4 years. During follow-up, 124 individuals were diagnosed with late-onset MS. No statistically significant association was found between diet quality at baseline and the hazard of MS diagnosis in adjusted analyses (HR highest vs lowest diet quality tertile: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.49-1.27, Test for trend: p = 0.22). Smoking status did not modify the association.

Conclusion: In this cohort of middle-aged Danes, diet quality was neither statistically significantly associated with the hazards of late-onset MS diagnosis in the entire sample, nor in sub-groups of current smokers, former smokers or never smokers.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Feb 22, 2020 12:01 am

2020 Jan 28
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Modulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway by Curcuma- And Garlic-Derived Hybrids
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3204743 ... d-hybrids/

Abstract

Nrf2 is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that binds to the promoter region of the antioxidant response element (ARE), inducing the coordinated up-regulation of antioxidant and detoxification genes. We recently synthesized a set of new molecules by combining the functional moieties of curcumin and diallyl sulfide, both known to induce the expression of antioxidant phase II enzymes by activating Nrf2 pathway. The aim of the study is to investigate the ability of such compounds to activate Keap1/Nrf2/ARE cytoprotective pathway, in comparison with two reference Nrf2-activators: curcumin and dimethyl fumarate, a drug approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, since Nrf2 pathway is known to be regulated also by epigenetic modifications, including key modifications in microRNA (miRNA) expression, the effects of the hybrids on the expression levels of selected miRNAs, associated with Nrf2 signaling pathway have also been investigated. The results show that compounds exert antioxidant effect by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway and inducing the ARE-regulated expression of its downstream target genes, such as HO-1 and NQO1, with two hybrids to a higher extent than curcumin. In addition, some molecules induce changes in the expression levels of miR-125b-5p, even if to a lesser extent than curcumin. However, no changes have been observed in the expression levels of mRNA coding for glutathione synthetase, suggesting that the modulation of this mRNA is not strictly under the control of miR-125b-5p, which could be influenced by other miRNAs.

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Re: Diet

Post by NHE » Sat Feb 22, 2020 6:30 am

Petr75 wrote:
Sat Feb 22, 2020 12:01 am
2020 Jan 28
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Modulation of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathway by Curcuma- And Garlic-Derived Hybrids
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3204743 ... d-hybrids/

Free full text. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... -01597.pdf

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Apr 18, 2020 11:13 am

2020 Mar 26
Department of Psychology, Mount Mercy University, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
A Modified MCT-Based Ketogenic Diet Increases Plasma β-Hydroxybutyrate but Has Less Effect on Fatigue and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis Compared to a Modified Paleolithic Diet: A Waitlist-Controlled, Randomized Pilot Study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32213121

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of a modified MCT-based ketogenic diet and its impact on plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and MS outcomes compared to a modified Paleolithic diet and usual diet in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Methods: Fifteen individuals with MS were randomized to 3 groups: 1) modified Paleolithic diet (Paleo; n = 6); 2) medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based ketogenic diet that included coconut as a fat source (Keto; n = 5); or 3) usual diet (Control; n = 4). Participants had blood drawn every 4 weeks to monitor nutritional ketosis. Participants completed 4-day weighed food records, measures of disability, fatigue, quality of life (QoL), cognitive function, and physical function at baseline and 12-weeks.

Results: Macronutrient intake significantly shifted toward a ratio indicative of a ketogenic diet in the Keto group at 12 weeks. Similarly, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate indicated nutritional ketosis in the Keto group, whereas neither macronutrient intake nor plasma β-hydroxybutyrate indicated nutritional ketosis in the Paleo and Control groups. The Paleo group had significant within group reductions in fatigue scores and maintained cognitive function scores compared to the Control group. The Keto group had significant reductions in fasting glucose and insulin compared to baseline values; however, no clinical outcomes significantly changed.

Conclusions: Participants consuming the MCT-based ketogenic diet achieved nutritional ketosis; however, it was not associated with significant clinical improvement in this study whereas the modified Paleolithic diet was associated with significant clinical improvements. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of the modified Paleolithic and MCT-based ketogenic diets on MS.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Wed May 13, 2020 11:00 am

2020 Apr 27
Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
The role of dietary antioxidant index and index of nutritional quality in MS onset: finding from an Iranian population-based incident case-control study.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32336221

Abstract

Introduction: The role of nutritional factors in MS etiology is a matter of debate. Employing dietary antioxidant index (DAI) as well as index of nutritional quality (INQ) we aimed to investigate the possible link between diet and MS risk. Methods: This was a large population-based case-control study recruiting 547 incident cases and 1057 population controls between August 2013 and February 2015. DAI and INQ were calculated based on the adolescence dietary intake of the participants. Logistic regression was employed for estimating adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence interval in 2018. Results: Participants with less than median DAI values had two-fold increased risk of MS onset (adjusted OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.64-2.58, P < 0.001). A significant dose-response pattern for DAI (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.55, P for trend <0.001) was also detected. In the case of INQ, the strongest decreased risk were detected for vitamin D (OR = 0.09) and Zinc (OR = 0.34), followed by vitamin A (OR = 0.49), Calcium (OR = 0.49) and vitamin B6 (OR = 0.51) (All P-values < 0.05). Conclusion: Considering the inherent limitation of case-control designs, an appropriate intake of nutrient antioxidants may have a role in decreasing the likelihood of MS risk. Moreover, those with healthier diet assessed by index of nutritional quality were at decreased risk for MS.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Fri Jul 03, 2020 11:24 am

2020 Jun 5
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, UFR des Sciences de Santé, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Cedex, France
Triterpene Glycosides From Blighia Welwitschii and Evaluation of Their Antibody Recognition Capacity in Multiple Sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32512361/

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) in a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which reliable biomarkers are needed for therapeutic monitoring and diagnosis. Autoantibodies (autoAbs) are known biomarker candidates although their detection in biological fluids requires a thorough characterization of their associated antigens. Over the past twenty years, a reverse chemical-based approach aiming to screen putative autoantigens has underlined the role of glycans, in particular glucose, in MS. Despite the progress achieved, a lack of consensus regarding the nature of innate antigens as well as difficulties proposing new synthetic glucose-based structures have proved to be obstacles. Here is proposed a strategy to extend the current methodology to the field of natural glycosides, in order to dramatically increase the diversity of glycans that could be tested. Triterpene saponins from the Sapindaceace family represent an optimal starting material as their abundant description in the literature has revealed a prevalence of glucose-based oligosaccharides. Blighia welwitschii (Sapindaceae) was thus selected as a case study and twelve triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as mass spectrometry, revealing seven undescribed compounds. A selection of natural glycosides exhibiting various oligosaccharide moieties were then tested as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to recognize IgM antibodies (Abs) in MS patients' sera. Immunoassay results indicated a correlation between the glycan structures and their antibody recognition capacity, allowing the determination of structure-activity relationships that were coherent with previous studies. This approach might help to identify sugar epitopes putatively involved in MS pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Tue Jul 21, 2020 11:42 am

2020 Jun 28
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Metabolic Disorders and Complications Program, and Brain Repair and Integrative
Compounds that extend longevity are protective in neurodegenerative diseases and provide a novel treatment strategy for these devastating disorders
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32610099/

Abstract

While aging is the greatest risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease, the role of aging in these diseases is poorly understood. In the inherited forms of these diseases, the disease-causing mutation is present from birth but symptoms appear decades later. This indicates that these mutations are well tolerated in younger individuals but not in older adults. Based on this observation, we hypothesized that changes taking place during normal aging make the cells in the brain (and elsewhere) susceptible to the disease-causing mutations. If so, then delaying some of these age-related changes may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this review, we examine the effects of five compounds that have been shown to extend longevity (metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, curcumin) in four of the most common neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). While not all investigations observe a beneficial effect of these compounds, there are multiple studies that show a protective effect of each of these lifespan-extending compounds in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Combined with genetic studies, this suggests the possibility that targeting the aging process may be an effective strategy to treat neurodegenerative disease.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Tue Jul 28, 2020 11:38 am

2020 Jul 8
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
The effect of ellagic acid on spinal cord and sciatica function in a mice model of multiple sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32640490/

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder, causing toxicity in different organs, such as spinal cord tissue. The goal of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) against spinal cord and sciatica function in cuprizone (Cup)-induced demyelination model. Animals were divided into six equal groups. The first group received tap water as the control. Cup group was treated with Cup (0.2% w/w in fed). EA 100 group was orally treated with EA (100 mg/kg). EA + Cup groups were orally treated with three doses of 5, 50, and 100 mg/kg of EA plus Cup (0.2% w/w). All groups received treatment for 42 days. Open field, rotarod, and gait tests were done to evaluate the behavioral changes following Cup and/or EA treatment. Also, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase enzymes activity in spinal cord was evaluated. Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining also the behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the model. Cup increased ROS levels and oxidative stress in their spinal cord tissues. Also, Cup reduced antioxidant capacity, SOD, and catalase activity. EA (especially at 100 mg/kg) prevented these abnormal changes. EA co-treatment dose-dependently was able to ameliorate behavioral impairments in mice that received Cup. EA might act as a protective agent in MS by modulating spinal cord function.

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wiki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellagic_acid

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Aug 08, 2020 1:18 am

2020 Mar 2
Holistic Sync - Holistic Integrative Medicine
The "Treatise on the spleen and stomach" ( Pí Wèi Lùn) as the first record of multiple sclerosis in the medical literature - A hypothesis based on the analysis of clinical presentation and herbal medicine
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32670824/

Abstract

Background: The "Treatise on the spleen and stomach" (Pí Wèi Lùn) is the work of the scholar and physician Li Gao (Jin-Yuan dynasties, 1115-1368 C.E., China). Li Gao described a clinical presentation that today would fall under the diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and proposed the treatment with herbal medicine and nutritional guidelines. The PWL is well known for its application in the treatment of MS and autoimmune conditions. However, this theoretical "MS" has not yet been analyzed through a scientific investigation, and research on its herbal formulations for MS is scant.

Methods: We analyzed the PWL "MS" clinical presentation considering biomedical diagnostic criteria and neurological correlates. To support our review, we searched Pubmed for studies on the PWL main herbal formulas and their herbs/isolates used for the believed "MS" which treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)/MS.

Results: We found a very close correlation between the PWL "MS" and the current MS diagnosis. Twenty four studies on the herbs-isolates showed significant amelioration of EAE, neuronal damage, and demyelination.

Discussion: Collectively, Astragali radix, Ginseng radix, Glycyrrhizae radix, and berberine containing Phellodendri cortex reduced the severity of EAE through different signaling pathways and mechanisms of action. These herbs provided a wide range of properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microglial activation, anti-infiltration of leukocytes, apoptotic/anti-apoptotic balance, and neuronal protection.

Conclusion: Our review proposes that the PWL is the first record of MS in the medical literature. Its formulas and herbs-isolates offer a fertile area for MS research and an invaluable potential for its treatment.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Aug 15, 2020 10:02 pm

2020 Jul 23
Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia/Neuroepidemiology Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne
High Prudent diet factor score predicts lower relapse hazard in early multiple sclerosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32701031/

Abstract

Background: Dietary patterns and their association with subsequent clinical course have not been well studied in early multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objectives: To describe dietary patterns in people in 5 years following first clinical demyelination and assess associations with MS conversion and relapse.

Methods: This study included baseline food frequency questionnaire dietary intake (entry to the Ausimmune Study) and 5-year follow-up; iterated principal factor analysis was applied. MS conversion and relapse risks were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, sex, study site, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking and omega-3 supplement use.

Results: In cases with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination, we identified three major dietary patterns, 'Prudent', 'High-Vegetable' and 'Mixed', explaining 43%, 37% and 24% of diet variance in dietary intake, respectively. Fruits, vegetables, fish, wholegrains and nuts loaded highly on the Prudent pattern, starchy vegetables and legumes on the High-Vegetable pattern, and meats and alcohol on the Mixed pattern. Diet factor scores were not associated with MS conversion risk. Those with baseline Prudent scores above the median had significantly lower relapse risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 0.81) with some evidence of a plateau effect.

Conclusion: Prudent diet factor score above the median was prospectively associated with lower relapse risk in the 5 years following the first clinical demyelinating event.

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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sat Sep 12, 2020 11:43 am

2020 Aug 18
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Kombucha ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through activation of Treg and Th2 cells
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32812134/

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Kombucha is produced by the fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. This research was designed to reveal the therapeutic impact and the molecular and cellular processes determining the effect of kombucha on MS alleviation in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) peptide emulsified in CFA and injected subcutaneously over two flank areas in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, pertussis toxin was injected intraperitoneally and repeated 48 h later. Treatment groups were received three different doses of kombucha (K1: low dose, K2: medium dose and K3: high dose) to obtain a maximum protection. Clinical scores and other criteria were followed daily for the 25 days. At the end of the course, T-helper-related cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4, and TGF-β) were measured through ELISA. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) concentration in spinal cord tissue was detected. The severity of disease on the peak of disease in K1, K2, and K3 groups were 3.4 ± 0.18 and 2.6 ± 0.18 and 2 ± 0.14 respectively, compared to the CTRL group with 4.5 ± 0.19 (p < 0.001). Kombucha increased production of interleukin IL-4 (K1 = 95 ± 5, K2 = 110 ± 10, K3 = 115 ± 5 and CTRL = 65 ± 5; p < 0.05) and TGF-β (K1 = 1750 ± 80, K2 = 2050 ± 65, K3 = 2200 ± 75 and CTRL = 850 ± 85; p < 0.001) but concurrently resulted in a remarkable reduction in the production of IFN-γ (K1 = 950 ± 70, K2 = 890 ± 65, K3 = 850 ± 85 and CTRL = 3850 ± 115; p < 0.001) and IL-17 (K1 = 1250 ± 75, K2 = 1050 ± 90, K3 = 970 ± 80 and CTRL = 6450 ± 125; p < 0.001). Moreover, NO concentration in spinal cord tissue in the treatment groups was significantly less than the control group (K1: 35.42 ± 2.1, K2 = 31.21 ± 2.2, K3 = 28.24 ± 2.6 and CTRL = 45.25 ± 2.7; p < 0.05). These results supported that kombucha could reduce the severity of disease in an EAE model through motivating polarization of CD4+ T cells by induction of IL-4 and TGF-β as well as inhibition of IFN-γ and IL-17.
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wiki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kombucha


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Re: Diet

Post by Petr75 » Sun Sep 13, 2020 1:45 am

2020 Jul 30
Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, Croatia
Olive Leaf Polyphenols Attenuate the Clinical Course of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Provide Neuroprotection by Reducing Oxidative Stress, Regulating Microglia and SIRT1, and Preserving Myelin Integrity
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32802267/


Abstract

Numerous evidences suggest that plant polyphenols may have therapeutic benefits in regulating oxidative stress and providing neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these mechanisms are not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of olive leaf polyphenols on oxidative stress through oxidation marker level and activity (TBARS, SOD, and GPX) and their protein expression (SOD1, SOD2, and GPX1), as well as the protein expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and microglia markers (Iba-1, CD206, and iNOS) and myelin integrity (proteolipid protein expression) in the brain of rats with induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and subjected to olive leaf therapy. Experiments were performed in male EAE DA rats, which were randomly divided into 2 main groups: EAE groups treated with the therapy of olive leaf (EAE+TOL) and untreated EAE control groups. The EAE treated groups consumed olive leaf tea instead of drinking water (ad libitum) from the beginning to the end of the experiment. In addition, olive leaf extract was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for the 10 continuous days and started on the 8th day after EAE induction. The clinical course was monitored in both groups until the 30th day after EAE induction. Our results demonstrated that TOL attenuated the clinical course of EAE; reduced the oxidative stress (by decreasing the concentration of MDA); upregulated antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2, and GPX1), SIRT1 (overall and microglial), and anti-inflammatory M2 microglia; downregulated proinflammatory M1 type; and preserved myelin integrity. These data support the idea that TOL may be an effective therapeutic approach for treating MS and other neurodegenerative diseases.
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