please check this new study:
Retinal Tissue Perfusion in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
PURPOSE: The goal of this work was to determine whether the retinal tissue perfusion (RTP) is impaired in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
METHODS: Seventy-four patients [66 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 8 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)] and 74 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. RTP was calculated as the retinal blood flow (measured using retinal function imager) supplying the macular area divided by the corresponding tissue volume of the inner retina from the inner limiting membrane to the outer plexiform layer, as measured by ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography.
RESULTS: The RTP in the MS group was 2.37 ± 0.59 nl/s/mm3 (mean ± standard deviation), which was significantly lower than the control group (4.06 ± 0.89 nl/s/mm3, P < 0.001), reflecting a decrease of 42%. The blood flow volume was 2.50 ± 0.50 nl/s in MS, which was 45% lower than in the control group (4.56 ± 0.91 nl/s, P < 0.001). In addition, the tissue volume of the inner retina was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The RTP in patients with MS was significantly correlated with the retinal blood flow volume (r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and retinal tissue volume (r = -0.56, P < 0.001). However, the retinal blood flow in patients with MS was not related to the tissue volume (r = -0.06, P = 0.59).
CONCLUSIONS: Impaired retinal tissue perfusion occurred in patients with MS, which could be developed as a possible biomarker in monitoring disease progression in MS.