Laboratory of Immunology and Bioinformatics , Institute of Natural and Biological Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro , Uberaba , Minas Gerais , Brazil
An introduction of the role of probiotics in human infections and autoimmune diseases.
During the last decades, studies exploring the role of microorganisms inhabiting human body in different scenarios have demonstrated the great potential of modulating them to treat and prevent diseases. Among the most outstanding applications, probiotics have been used for over a century to treat infections and inflammation. Despite the beneficial role of other probiotics, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are the most frequently used, and have been effective as a therapeutic option in the treatment/prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases, urogenital infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Additionally, as gastrointestinal tract harbors a great diversity of microbial species that directly or indirectly modulate host metabolism and immune response, the influence of intestinal microbiota, one of the targets of therapies using probiotics, on the biology of immune cells can be explored to treat inflammatory disorders or immune-mediated diseases. Thus, it is not surprising that probiotics have presented promising results in modulating human inflammatory diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, among others. Hence, the purpose of this review is to discuss the potential of therapeutic approaches using probiotics to constrain infection and development of inflammation on human subjects.
Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentra ... 019-1611-4
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and autoimmune neurological disorder which leads to demyelination. Although the etiology of MS is yet to be known, it appears that regulating the immune system and suppressing inflammatory pathways may possibly have a favorable effect on the healing of this disease. Evidence suggests that probiotics consumption via gut microbiome alteration devises beneficial effects in improving immune and inflammatory responses in MS. All articles were systematically searched (in the main databases) for this paper. Two investigators independently scrutinized full texts of the potentially eligible articles. The quality of the study was evaluated using standardized tools. The methodological quality of seven studies included in this review ranged from fair to good. The findings illustrated that there were statistically significant improvements in the static and dynamic balance in patients and animals with MS. In the paper in hand, the effects of probiotics administration on immune and inflammatory markers in MS disease are evaluated. In addition, the limitations and knowledge gaps were reported while proposing a possible mechanism of probiotics therapy in modulating immune and inflammatory responses. This systematic review indicated that the probiotics could improve immune and inflammatory parameters, the cytokines and cells in MS disease. Probiotics may have efficient effects in management and treatment of MS. More studies are required to clarify the effect of supplementation with probiotics and their mechanisms in MS disease.
Few investigations have specifically assessed the effect of probiotic supplements on MS in animals and humans. To date, interventional studies’ evidences suggest that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on reducing the risk and preventing and delaying MS. This paper suggests that administration of probiotics positively affects CNS disorder and demyelination process, especially via gut microbiome composition improvements, which is yet to be investigated. Future studies of probiotic supplementation using particularly large-scale RCTs with adequate dosages and sample sizes in MS are required to elucidate the potential role of probiotic therapy on promotion of the immune system and suppressing inflammation.