Microbiol Immunol. 2020 May 13.
- The present study was to demonstrate the G protein coupled receptors serve as targets for the treatment of autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Rats received pristane at the base of the tail. Affected joints were counted daily. The T cell mediated autoimmune diseases such as pristane induced arthritis (PIA) and autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats model were profoundly ameliorated by treating with the specific G protein couple receptors 120 (GPR120) stimuli Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs). Our study further revealed that the activation of GPR120 by ω-3 FAs can result in a decrease of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1), and further inhibit the downstream IKKβ/I-κB pathway and the terminal NF-κB activation which serves as a mediator of T cell activation. ω-3 FAs exhibited inhibitory effect on TAK1 by enhancing the association of β-arrestin2 and TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), thus the disassociation of TAB1 from the TAB1/TAK1 complex render the limited effect on the β-arrestin2 signaling as innated immunity regulation. GPR120 is a functional receptor of ω-3 FAs in the T cell-mediated autoimmune disease compared to its effect on the innate immunity.