Model of cortical demyelination with cytokines

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frodo
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Model of cortical demyelination with cytokines

Post by frodo » Tue May 19, 2020 4:59 am

Persistent elevation of intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to multiple sclerosis-like cortical demyelination and neurodegeneration

https://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.co ... 20-00938-1

Abstract

Analysis of isolated meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of post-mortem MS cases has shown increased gene and protein expression for the pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-γ (IFNγ).

Here we tested the hypothesis that persistent production of these cytokines in the meningeal compartment and diffusion into underlying GM can drive chronic MS-like GM pathology. Lentiviral transfer vectors were injected into the sagittal sulcus of DA rats to deliver continuous expression of TNF + IFNγ transgenes in the meninges and the resulting neuropathology analysed after 1 and 2 months. Injection of TNF + IFNγ viral vectors, with or without prior MOG immunisation, induced extensive immune cell infiltration (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, CD79a + B-cells and macrophages) in the meninges by 28 dpi, which remained at 2 months. Control GFP viral vector did not induce infiltration.

Subpial demyelination was seen underlying these infiltrates, which was partly dependant on prior myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunisation. A significant decrease in neuronal numbers was seen at 28 and 56 days in cortical layers II-V that was independent of MOG immunisation. RNA analysis at 28 dpi showed an increase in expression of necroptotic pathway genes, including RIP3, MLKL, cIAP2 and Nox2. PhosphoRIP3+ and phosphoMLKL+ neurons were present in TNF + IFNγ vector injected animals, indicating activation of necroptosis.

Our results suggest that persistent expression of TNF in the presence of IFNγ is a potent inducer of meningeal inflammation and can activate TNF signalling pathways in cortical cells leading to neuronal death and subpial demyelination and thus may contribute to clinical progression in MS.

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