biomarkers review 2020 and more fingers pointing to EBV

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biomarkers review 2020 and more fingers pointing to EBV

Post by frodo » Mon Jun 29, 2020 12:11 am

Molecular Biomarkers in the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the spinal cord and brain. Detection of the disease at its initial stages is a difficult task as the causes and mechanisms of the manifestations of the disease remain unclear. Diagnosis of MS is a complex process. Studies of the molecular mechanisms of the disease and the search for biomarkers are among the key directions in the diagnosis of the disease. This review addresses potential biomarkers for multiple sclerosis detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. ... 20-00932-z ... 0932-z.pdf


There is a multitude of potential markers for MS, though currently only oligoclonal IgG and IgM an-tibodies and FLC-κ are widely used. Additional biomarkers are antibody to John Cunningham virus and antibodies to aquaporin 4, though they are not specific markers for MS but represent tools for the differential diagnosis of similar or concomitant diseases.

This review shows that concentrations of many markers correlate, i.e., their diagnostic and prognostic value is most apparent in complex determinations of the level of multiple markers. It can be suggested that the most convenient and informative system for their clinical employment consists of protein microchips. Antigen microchips provide an excellent tool for studying the patterns of reactivity involving use of a small quantity of clinical material from patients. Thus, multiple studies have addressed the immune response in MS, including patterns of lipid-specific antibodies in the CSF.

Hecker et al. reported analysis of CSF antibodies in MS patients with RMS and PPMS, as well as other neurological diseases, using high-density peptide microchips containing 3991 peptides. Antibody recognition patterns in both forms of the disease overlapped, though patients with PPMS showed a wider pattern.

Thus, two peptides were identified for RMS and 23 for patients with PPMS. The highest signals were found for a region of the EBNA1 protein (amino acids 392–411) of Epstein-Barr virus, which is homologous to the N-terminal of the human αB-crystallin.

Thus, the search for new biomarkers and the development of diagnostic protein microchips constitutes a potential direction in the diagnosis of MS.

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