National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea
Associations between ambient air pollution, obesity, and serum vitamin D status in the general population of Korean adults
Background: Although a growing body of evidence suggests air pollution is associated with low serum vitamin D status, few studies have reported whether obesity status affects this relationship. The aim of this study was to identify associations between ambient air pollution exposure, obesity, and serum vitamin D status in the general population of South Korea.
Methods: This study was conducted in a cross-sectional design. A total of 30,242 Korean adults from a nationwide general population survey were included for our final analysis. Air pollutants included particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration to assess vitamin D status for each participant. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associations between ambient air pollution and vitamin D status in each subgroup according to body mass index level.
Results: The annual average concentrations of PM10, NO2, and CO were significantly associated with a lower serum vitamin D concentration and higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. The results show a significant association between serum vitamin D status and PM10 exposure in obese subgroup. Based on the gender, females with obesity showed more strong association (negative) between different air pollutants and low serum vitamin D concentration and a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. However, this pattern was not observed in men.
Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that women with obesity may be more vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency in the context of persistent exposure to air pollution.
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, China
Assessing the effects of ultraviolet radiation, residential greenness and air pollution on vitamin D levels: A longitudinal cohort study in China
Vitamin D metabolism is essential in aging and can be affected by multiple environmental factors. However, most studies conducted single exposure analyses. We aim to assess the individual and combined effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, residential greenness, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and ozone (O3) on vitamin D levels in a national cohort study of older adults in China. We used the 2012 and 2014 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey data, and measured the environmental exposure in the same year. We interpolated the UV radiation from monitoring stations, measured residential greenness through satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), modeled PM2.5 with satellite data, and estimated O3 using machine learning. We dichotomized serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), the primary circulating form of vitamin D, into non-deficiency (≥50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<50 nmol/L) categories. We used the generalized estimating equation for analysis, adjusted for sociodemographic information, lifestyle, physical condition, and season of blood draw, and calculated joint odds ratios based on the Cumulative Risk Index. We also explored the interaction between interested exposures, modification of participants' characteristics, and potential mediation. We included 1,336 participants, with a mean age of 83 at baseline. In single exposure models, the odds ratios of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) for per interquartile range increase in UV radiation, NDVI, PM2.5, and O3 and decrease were 0.39 (95 % CI:0.33,0.46), 0.90 (0.81,1.00), 1.65 (1.53,1.78), 1.67 (1.46,1.92), respectively. UV radiation mediated nearly 48 % and 78 % of the relationship between VDD and PM2.5 and O3, respectively. The association between UV radiation and VDD was stronger in females than men (OR: 2.25 vs 1.22). UV radiation, residential greenness can protect against VDD, while, PM2.5 and O3 increase the risk of VDD. UV radiation partly mediated the association between air pollution and VDD.
Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
The effect of air pollution on systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease resulting from impaired inflammatory responses. Given the role of air pollution on increasing inflammatory mediators, thus, we aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze evidence regarding an association between short-term exposure to air pollution and SLE onset, activity, and hospitalization.
Methods: Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched for all published articles until July 5, 2021. Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) checklist was used to assess the quality of individual studies. Relevant demographic data and the intended results of the selected studies were extracted, and their adjusted risk ratios (RRs) were pooled using random and fixed effect analysis based on the heterogeneity index.
Findings: Twelve studies were entered in our systematic review, and finally, six publications were enrolled in meta-analysis. Overall, Meta-analysis showed no significant association between an increase of PM2.5 on the third day and SLEDAI score with pooled adjusted RR of 1.212 (95% CI, 0,853-1.721), p-value = 0.284. However, there was a positive relationship between 6 days increase of Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity Index (SLEDAI) score (pooled adjusted RR 1.112; 95% CI, 1.005-1.231), p-value = 0.040. There was no significant association between carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM2.5, and PM10 increase in the air and hospitalization of SLE patients with pooled RR of 1.021 (95% CI, 0,986-1.1.057), p-value = 0.249, 1.034 (95% CI, 0.996-1.068); p-value = 0.079, 1.042 (95% CI, 0.994-1.092); p-value = 0.084 and 1.004 (95% CI, 0.996-1.013); p-value = 0.323, respectively. Also, analysis showed a significant relation between ozone (O3) increase and hospitalization with a pooled RR of 1.076 (95% CI, 1.009-1.147); p-value = 0.025. Finally, analysis of SO2 increase and risk of hospitalization demonstrated no significant relationship with the pooled RR of 1.011; (95% CI, 0.962-1.062), p-value = 0.0.671.
Conclusion: Our findings prove that PM2.5 was associated with increased SLE risk. We also showed that only O3 was associated with increased hospital admissions of SLE patients.
National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Republic of Korea
Effects of vitamin D on associations between air pollution and mental health outcomes in Korean adults: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)
..Conclusions: This study results suggest that associations between ambient air pollution and mental health outcomes were stronger in participants with vitamin D deficiency.
use the report button to flag problematic post content to volunteer moderators' attention.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Air pollution, depressive and anxiety disorders, and brain effects: A systematic review
Accumulating data suggest that air pollution increases the risk of internalizing psychopathology, including anxiety and depressive disorders. Moreover, the link between air pollution and poor mental health may relate to neurostructural and neurofunctional changes. We systematically reviewed the MEDLINE database in September 2021 for original articles reporting effects of air pollution on 1) internalizing symptoms and behaviors (anxiety or depression) and 2) frontolimbic brain regions (i.e., hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex). One hundred and eleven articles on mental health (76% human, 24% animals) and 92 on brain structure and function (11% human, 86% animals) were identified. For literature search 1, the most common pollutants examined were PM2.5 (64.9%), NO2 (37.8%), and PM10 (33.3%). For literature search 2, the most common pollutants examined were PM2.5 (32.6%), O3 (26.1%) and Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) (26.1%). The majority of studies (73%) reported higher internalizing symptoms and behaviors with higher air pollution exposure. Air pollution was consistently associated (95% of articles reported significant findings) with neurostructural and neurofunctional effects (e.g., increased inflammation and oxidative stress, changes to neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and their metabolites) within multiple brain regions (24% of articles), or within the hippocampus (66%), PFC (7%), and amygdala (1%). For both literature searches, the most studied exposure time frames were adulthood (48% and 59% for literature searches 1 and 2, respectively) and the prenatal period (26% and 27% for literature searches 1 and 2, respectively). Forty-three percent and 29% of studies assessed more than one exposure window in literature search 1 and 2, respectively. The extant literature suggests that air pollution is associated with increased depressive and anxiety symptoms and behaviors, and alterations in brain regions implicated in risk of psychopathology. However, there are several gaps in the literature, including: limited studies examining the neural consequences of air pollution in humans. Further, a comprehensive developmental approach is needed to examine windows of susceptibility to exposure and track the emergence of psychopathology following air pollution exposure.
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 0SL, United Kingdom
Impact of long-term air pollution exposure on incidence of neurodegenerative diseases: A protocol for a systematic review and exposure-response meta-analysis
Background: Ambient air pollution is a pervasive and ubiquitous hazard, which has been linked to premature morbidity and a growing number of morbidity endpoints. Air pollution may be linked to neurodegeneration, and via this or other pathways, to neurodegenerative diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, Parkinson's Disease (PD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Motor Neuron Diseases ...
Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
Impacts of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Neurologic Health, Disease, and Practice: A Scoping Review
Background and objectives: Although the international community collectively seeks to reduce global temperature rise to under 1.5ºC before 2100, irreversible environmental changes have already occurred, and as the planet warms these changes will continue to occur. As we witness the effects of a warming planet on human health, it is imperative that neurologists anticipate how the epidemiology and incidence of neurologic disease may change. In this review, we organized our analysis around three key themes related to climate change and neurologic health: extreme weather events and temperature fluctuations, emerging neuro-infectious diseases, and pollutant impacts. Across each of these themes, we appraised and reviewed recent literature relevant to neurological disease and practice.
Methods: Studies were identified using search terms relating to climate change, pollutants, and neurologic disease in PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, and grey literature. Studies published between 1990 and 2022 were included if they pertained to human incidence or prevalence of disease, were in English, and were relevant to neurologic disease.
Results: We identified a total of 364 articles, grouped into the three key themes of our study; extreme weather events and temperature fluctuations (38 studies), emerging neuro-infectious diseases (37 studies), and pollutant impacts (289 studies). The included studies highlighted the relationships between neurologic symptom exacerbation and temperature variability, tick-borne infections and warming climates, and airborne pollutants and cerebrovascular disease incidence and severity.
Discussion: Temperature extremes and variability both associated with stroke incidence and severity, migraine headaches, hospitalization in dementia patients, and multiple sclerosis exacerbations. Exposure to airborne pollutants, especially PM2.5 and nitrates, associated with stroke incidence and severity, headaches, dementia risk, Parkinson's disease, and MS exacerbation. Climate change has demonstrably expanded favorable conditions for zoonotic diseases beyond traditional borders, and poses the risk of disease in new, susceptible populations. Articles were biased towards resource-rich regions, suggesting a discordance between where research occurs and where changes are most acute. As such, three key priorities emerged for further study; neuro-infectious disease risk mitigation, understanding the pathophysiology of airborne pollutants on the nervous system, and methods to improve delivery of neurologic care in the face of climate-related disruptions.
© 2022 American Academy of Neurology.
Department of Neurology, Emergency Medical Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Annual exposure to PM10 is related to cerebral small vessel disease in general adult population
Ambient air pollution is one of the most important global health issues. Although several studies have been reported the associations between air pollution and brain function or structure, impact of the air pollution on cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) have rarely been explored in Asian adult population. We evaluated the association between exposure to air pollutants and cSVD in Korean asymptomatic adults....
Environmental Health Research Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Republic of Korea
Ambient air pollution and the risk of neurological diseases in residential areas near multi-purposed industrial complexes of korea: A population-based cohort study
Emerging evidence suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution may induce adverse effects on the central nervous system. However, no study explored the associations in large industrial complex (IC) areas which are one of the major contributors to air pollution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the pollution status and the association between residential proximity and incidence of neurological diseases near two major ICs characterized as multi-purposed ICs in Korea. A retrospective cohort of residents near the ICs was constructed using Korea's health insurance data and monitored from 2008 to 2019. Emission amounts of the ICs and the air pollution status in the nearby (exposed) and remote (control) area were evaluated using data from national regulatory networks, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for neurological diseases of the exposed group compared to the control group were calculated using Cox proportional regression models. Overall, the complexes emitted large amounts of VOCs, CO, NOx, and PM10, and annual levels of ambient PM (2.5, 10), gaseous substances (NO2, SO2), VOCs and PAHs were higher in the exposed area compared to the control and/or the national average. The risk of inflammatory disease of the CNS (G00-09) and extrapyramidal and movement disorders (G20-26) were higher in the exposed area with a HR (95% CI) of 1.36 (1.10-1.68) and 1.33 (1.27-1.39) respectively. Among the subclasses, other extrapyramidal and movement disorders (G25) and epilepsy (G40) were associated with higher risks in the exposed area (HR (95%CI): 1.11 (1.04-1.18), 1.08 (1.00-1.16)) after adjusting for potential confounders. These results suggest that people living near ICs are more likely to be exposed to higher air pollution levels and have higher risks of developing several neurological disorders. However, further epidemiological studies in these industrial areas supplemented with other indicators of environmental exposure and control of other diverse factors are warranted.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Association between exposure to combustion-related air pollution and multiple sclerosis risk
Background: Smoking and occupational pulmonary irritants contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) development. We aimed to study the association between ambient air pollution and MS risk and potential interaction with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*15:01 allele.
Methods: Exposure to combustion-related air pollution was estimated as outdoor levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants' residence locations, by spatially resolved dispersion modelling for the years 1990-18. Using two population-based case-control studies (6635 cases, 8880 controls), NOx levels were associated with MS risk by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression models. Interaction between high NOx levels and the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele regarding MS risk was calculated by the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). In addition, a register study was performed comprising all MS cases in Sweden who had received their diagnosis between 1993 and 2018 (n = 22 173), with 10 controls per case randomly selected from the National Population register.
Results: Residential air pollution was associated with MS risk. NOx levels (3-year average) exceeding the 90th percentile (24.6 µg/m3) were associated with an OR of 1.37 (95% CI 1.10-1.76) compared with levels below the 25th percentile (5.9 µg/m3), with a trend of increasing risk of MS with increasing levels of NOx (P <0.0001). A synergistic effect was observed between high NOx levels (exceeding the lower quartile among controls) and the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele regarding MS risk (AP 0.26, 95% CI 0.13-0.29).
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that moderate levels of combustion-related ambient air pollution may play a role in MS development.