Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
The emerging relationship between vitamin K and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of current evidence
Neurodegenerative disease refers to a group of disorders that predominantly damage the neurons in the brain. Despite significant progress in the knowledge of neurodegenerative diseases, there is currently no disease-modifying drug available. Vitamin K was first established for its involvement in blood clotting, but there is now compelling evidence indicating its role in the neurological system. In particular, the results of recent studies on the effects of vitamin K2 on preventing apoptosis, oxidative stress, and microglial activation in neuron cells through its role in electron transport are very promising against Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its protective effect on cognitive functions, its inhibitory effects on inflammation and α-synuclein fibrillization in Parkinson's disease, which has been revealed in recent years, are remarkable. Although there are many studies on the mechanism and possible treatment methods of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, studies on the relationship between vitamin K and neurodegenerative diseases are very limited, yet have promising findings. Vitamin K has also been proposed for therapeutic use in multiple sclerosis patients to lower the intensity or to slow down the progression of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to review the current evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis.