Air pollution

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Petr75
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Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2019 Apr 5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
Emerging role of air pollution in autoimmune diseases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30959217

Abstract
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a broad spectrum of disorders featured by the body's immune responses being directed against its own tissues, resulting in prolonged inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. Recently, the exposure to ambient air pollution has been implicated in the occurrence and development of ADs. Mechanisms linking air pollution exposures and ADs mainly include systemic inflammation, increased oxidative stress, epigenetic modifications induced by exposures and immune response caused by airway damage. The lung may be an autoimmunity initiation site in autoimmune diseases (ADs). Air pollutants can bind to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to regulate Th17 and Treg cells. Oxidative stress and inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissue caused by the pollutants can influence T, B cells, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines stimulate B cell and dendritic cells, resulting in a lot of antibodies and self-reactive T lymphocytes. Moreover, air pollutants may induce epigenetic changes to contribute to ADs. In this review, we will concern the associations between air pollution and immune-inflammatory responses, as well as mechanisms linking air pollution exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, we focus on the potential roles of air pollution in major autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
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dav75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by dav75 »

Thank you, this sheds some light on my condition. I breathed a chemical for 3 months in a new truck i was given. Something must have been leaking into the cabin which was like a burning plastic smell without the smoke. I had driven about 30 other trucks of same type and only smelt this in one other. A driver told me he believes it is a leaking chemical from the emissions cleaning system. The label reads, "Don't touch or breath this chemical". Had bad headaches for 3 months before they sent the truck to another state. My whole nervous system reacted shortly after and my lungs produced a thick clear jelly. I had all MS type symptoms and would fall over a few times a day. No strength in limbs and crushing fatigue. I had so many symptoms that the Dr. thought i was a hypochondriac and dismissed my search for answers. Now 5 years on i still fall over suddenly but only once or so a week. The lungs have gotten bad as i couldn't breath properly for 3 weeks a few months ago and since then have diminished breathing.The thick jelly from my inflamed lungs is ever coming out. I still struggle with all sorts of things like partially numb legs and nerve burning thru whole body and random muscle twitching, etc. etc. I fell over in the office at work today and since this has happened 3 times in 2 weeks, the boss asked me if i could see the company Dr. That could mean I loose my job if they deem me unfit to work.
Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Jan 18
Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences, Department of Neurology, Afyon, Turkey
Air pollution, a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954069

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Studies focusing attention on the effects of environmental pollution on the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) are on the increase. The aim of this study was to determine MS prevalence in a city home to an iron-and-steel factory which causes air pollution.
METHODS:
The study was designed as a cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive epidemiologic study. Ereğli city, which has an iron-and-steel factory and proven air pollution, was screened. Additionally, Devrek city, which is a rural and clean city, located 40 km away from Ereğli, was assigned and results were compared. A validated questionnaire was used for screening. McDonald 2010 criteria was used to diagnose cases.
RESULTS:
32,261 people were screened in Ereğli and 21,963 people were screened in Devrek. In total, 41 patients were diagnosed with clinical definite MS. Crude prevalence was found to be 96.1/100,000 in Ereğli and 45.5/100,000 in Devrek. The mean age of patients was 39.8 and the female/male ratio was 1.9.
CONCLUSION:
The results of this study indicate a more than double MS prevalence rate in the area home to an iron-and-steel factory when compared to the rural city. This supports the hypothesis that air pollution may be a possible etiological factor in MS.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Jan 21
School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Road Proximity, Air Pollution, Noise, Green Space and Neurologic Disease Incidence: A Population-Based Cohort Study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3196441 ... ort-study/

Abstract
Background: Emerging evidence links road proximity and air pollution with cognitive impairment. Joint effects of noise and greenness have not been evaluated. We investigated associations between road proximity and exposures to air pollution, and joint effects of noise and greenness, on non-Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis within a population-based cohort.
Methods: We assembled administrative health database cohorts of 45-84 year old residents (N ~ 678,000) of Metro Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazards models were built to assess associations between exposures and non-Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease. Given reduced case numbers, associations with Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis were evaluated in nested case-control analyses by conditional logistic regression.
Results: Road proximity was associated with all outcomes (e.g. non-Alzheimer's dementia hazard ratio: 1.14, [95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20], for living < 50 m from a major road or < 150 m from a highway). Air pollutants were associated with incidence of Parkinson's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia (e.g. Parkinson's disease hazard ratios of 1.09 [1.02-1.16], 1.03 [0.97-1.08], 1.12 [1.05-1.20] per interquartile increase in fine particulate matter, Black Carbon, and nitrogen dioxide) but not Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Noise was not associated with any outcomes while associations with greenness suggested protective effects for Parkinson's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia.
Conclusions: Road proximity was associated with incidence of non-Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. This association may be partially mediated by air pollution, whereas noise exposure did not affect associations. There was some evidence of protective effects of greenness.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Feb 7
Nature Reviews Neurology
Air Pollution Linked to Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203429 ... nd-stroke/
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no abstract, never mind, it is logical anyway - I think.
Maybe this problem could be solved - your opinions

https://ereska.net/viewtopic.php?f=17&t ... 576#p10576
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Feb 25
Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, Trieste, Italy
Air Pollution, a Risk Factor for Multiple Sclerosis?
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3209687 ... sclerosis/


Abstract

studies focusing attention on the effects of environmental pollution on the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) are on the increase. MS is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent relapses of inflammation that cause mild to severe disability. I read with interest the study by Türk Börü et al. titled "Air pollution, a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis". (1).
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Nov 13
CINTESIS-Center for Health Technology and Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal
Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Atmospheric Risk Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33202965/

Abstract

Despite the vast evidence on the environmental influence in neurodegenerative diseases, those considering a geospatial approach are scarce. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies concerning environmental atmospheric risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases that have used geospatial analysis/tools. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for all scientific studies that included a neurodegenerative disease, an environmental atmospheric factor, and a geographical analysis. Of the 34 included papers, approximately 60% were related to multiple sclerosis (MS), hence being the most studied neurodegenerative disease in the context of this study. Sun exposure (n = 13) followed by the most common exhaustion gases (n = 10 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and n = 5 for carbon monoxide (CO)) were the most studied atmospheric factors. Only one study used a geospatial interpolation model, although 13 studies used remote sensing data to compute atmospheric factors. In 20% of papers, we found an inverse correlation between sun exposure and multiple sclerosis. No consensus was reached in the analysis of nitrogen dioxide and Parkinson's disease, but it was related to dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This systematic review (number CRD42020196188 in PROSPERO's database) provides an insight into the available evidence regarding the geospatial influence of environmental factors on neurodegenerative diseases.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2020 Dec 16
Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, US
Assessing environmental epidemiology questions in practice with a causal inference pipeline: An investigation of the air pollution-multiple sclerosis relapses relationship
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33327039/

Abstract

When addressing environmental health-related questions, most often, only observational data are collected for ethical or practical reasons. However, the lack of randomized exposure often prevents the comparison of similar groups of exposed and unexposed units. This design barrier leads the environmental epidemiology field to mainly estimate associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes. A recently developed causal inference pipeline was developed to guide researchers interested in estimating the effects of plausible hypothetical interventions for policy recommendations. This article illustrates how this multistaged pipeline can help environmental epidemiologists reconstruct and analyze hypothetical randomized experiments by investigating whether an air pollution reduction intervention decreases the risk of multiple sclerosis relapses in Alsace region, France. The epidemiology literature reports conflicted findings on the relationship between air pollution and multiple sclerosis. Some studies found significant associations, whereas others did not. Two case-crossover studies reported significant associations between the risk of multiple sclerosis relapses and the exposure to air pollutants in the Alsace region. We use the same study population as these epidemiological studies to illustrate how appealing this causal inference approach is to estimate the effects of hypothetical, but plausible, environmental interventions.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

Petr75 wrote: Wed Dec 09, 2020 12:33 pm 2020 Nov 13
CINTESIS-Center for Health Technology and Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal
Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Atmospheric Risk Factors in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33202965/

Abstract

Despite the vast evidence on the environmental influence in neurodegenerative diseases, those considering a geospatial approach are scarce. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies concerning environmental atmospheric risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases that have used geospatial analysis/tools. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for all scientific studies that included a neurodegenerative disease, an environmental atmospheric factor, and a geographical analysis. Of the 34 included papers, approximately 60% were related to multiple sclerosis (MS), hence being the most studied neurodegenerative disease in the context of this study. Sun exposure (n = 13) followed by the most common exhaustion gases (n = 10 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and n = 5 for carbon monoxide (CO)) were the most studied atmospheric factors. Only one study used a geospatial interpolation model, although 13 studies used remote sensing data to compute atmospheric factors. In 20% of papers, we found an inverse correlation between sun exposure and multiple sclerosis. No consensus was reached in the analysis of nitrogen dioxide and Parkinson's disease, but it was related to dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This systematic review (number CRD42020196188 in PROSPERO's database) provides an insight into the available evidence regarding the geospatial influence of environmental factors on neurodegenerative diseases.
2021 Jan 12
Division of Neurology, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland
Geospatial analysis of individual-based Parkinson's disease data supports a link with air pollution: A case-control study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33476876/

Abstract

Background: The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. To approach the issue of PD's risk factors from a new perspective, we hypothesized that coupling the geographic distribution of PD with spatial statistics may provide new insights into environmental epidemiology research. The aim of this case-control study was to examine the spatial dependence of PD prevalence in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland (population = 474,211).

Methods: PD cases were identified through Geneva University Hospitals, private neurologists and nursing homes medical records (n = 1115). Controls derived from a population-based study (n = 12,614) and a comprehensive population census dataset (n = 237,771). All individuals were geographically localized based on their place of residence. Spatial Getis-Ord Gi* statistics were used to identify clusters of high versus low disease prevalence. Confounder-adjustment was performed for age, sex, nationality and income. Tukey's honestly significant difference was used to determine whether nitrogen dioxide and particulate matters PM10 concentrations were different within PD hotspots, coldspots or neutral areas.

Results: Confounder-adjustment greatly reduced greatly the spatial association. Characteristics of the geographic space influenced PD prevalence in 6% of patients. PD hotspots were concentrated in the urban centre. There was a significant difference in mean annual nitrogen dioxide and PM10 levels (+3.6 μg/m3 [p < 0.001] and +0.63 μg/m3 [p < 0.001] respectively) between PD hotspots and coldspots.

Conclusion: PD prevalence exhibited a spatial dependence for a small but significant proportion of patients. A positive association was detected between PD clusters and air pollution. Our data emphasize the multifactorial nature of PD and support a link between PD and air pollution.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2022 Jun 27
Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa
Urban air pollution and emergency department visits related to central nervous system diseases
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35759498/


Abstract

Ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological health outcomes. Ambient pollutants are thought to trigger oxidative stress and inflammation to which vulnerable populations, such as elderly may be particularly susceptible. Our study investigated the possible association between concentrations of ambient air pollutants and the number of emergency department (ED) visits for nervous system disorders among people residing in a large Canadian city. A time-stratified case-crossover study design combining data from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) and the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) between 2004 and 2015 was used. Two air quality health indices were considered in additional to specific pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Weather condition data were included in the models. ED visits with a discharge diagnosis were identified using ICD-10 codes (G00-G99). The analysis was stratified by sex and age, also by seasons. The associations were investigated in arrays organized as 18 strata and 15 time lags (in days) for each pollutant. Overall, 140,511 ED visits were included for the analysis. Most ED visits were related to episodic and paroxysmal diagnoses (G40-G47, 64%), with a majority of visits for migraines (G43, 39%). Among females, an increase of 0.1ppm ambient CO was associated with an increased risk of paroxysmal diagnoses at day 1 (RR = 1.019 (95%CI 1.004-1.033)), day 6 (1.024 (1.010-1.039)) and day 7 (1.022 (1.007-1.036). PM2.5 and SO2, and air quality indices were similarly associated with ED visits for episodic and paroxysmal disorders in days 6 and 7. Findings highlight that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased number of ED visits for nervous system disorders, particularly visits for paroxysmal diagnoses.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2022 Jul 14
Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China
COVID-19 and risk of neurodegenerative disorders: A Mendelian randomization study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35835752/

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Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and COVID-19 severity: a prospective cohort study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35609912/

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An Epidemiological Study to Investigate Links between Atmospheric Pollution from Farming and SARS-CoV-2 Mortality
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35457503/

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The association of airborne particulate matter and benzo[a]pyrene with the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in Poland
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35580710/
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2022 May 18
Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China; Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Association of Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution With Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer's Disease-Related Amyloidosis
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35953319/

Abstract

Background: Air pollution induces neurotoxic reactions and may exert adverse effects on cognitive health. We aimed to investigate whether air pollutants accelerate cognitive decline and affect neurobiological signatures of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We used a population-based cohort from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey with 31,573 participants and a 10-year follow-up (5878 cognitively unimpaired individuals in Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey followed for 5.95 ± 2.87 years), and biomarker-based data from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and Lifestyle study including 1131 participants who underwent cerebrospinal fluid measurements of AD-related amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins. Cognitive impairment was determined by education-corrected performance on the China-Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. Annual exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ground-level ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated at areas of residence. Exposures were aggregated as 2-year averages preceding enrollments using Cox proportional hazards or linear models.

Results: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 (per 20 μg/m3) increased the risk of cognitive impairment (hazard ratio, 1.100; 95% CI: 1.026-1.180), and similar associations were observed from separate cross-sectional analyses. Exposures to O3 and NO2 yielded elevated risk but with nonsignificant estimates. Individuals exposed to high PM2.5 manifested increased amyloid burdens as reflected by cerebrospinal fluid-AD biomarkers. Moreover, PM2.5 exposure-associated decline in global cognition was partly explained by amyloid pathology as measured by cerebrospinal fluid-Aβ42/Aβ40, P-tau/Aβ42, and T-tau/Aβ42, with mediation proportions ranging from 16.95% to 21.64%.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2022 Jan-Dec
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, USA
Postnatal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with the composition of the infant gut microbiota at 6-months of age
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35968805/

Abstract

Epidemiological studies in adults have shown that exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) is associated with the composition of the adult gut microbiome, but these relationships have not been examined in infancy. We aimed to determine if 6-month postnatal AAP exposure was associated with the infant gut microbiota at 6 months of age in a cohort of Latino mother-infant dyads from the Southern California Mother's Milk Study (n = 103). We estimated particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure from birth to 6-months based on residential address histories. We characterized the infant gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing at 6-months of age. At 6-months, the gut microbiota was dominated by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Our results show that, after adjusting for important confounders, postnatal AAP exposure was associated with the composition of the gut microbiota. As an example, PM10 exposure was positively associated with Dialister, Dorea, Acinetobacter, and Campylobacter while PM2.5 was positively associated with Actinomyces. Further, exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was inversely associated with Alistipes and NO2 exposure was positively associated with Actinomyces, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Eubacterium. Several of these taxa have previously been linked with systemic inflammation, including the genera Dialister and Dorea. This study provides the first evidence of significant associations between exposure to AAP and the composition of the infant gut microbiota, which may have important implications for future infant health and development.
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Petr75
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Re: Air pollution

Post by Petr75 »

2022 Oct
Department of Biochemistry, Riphah International University, Pakistan
Neurotoxic effects of environmental contaminants-measurements, mechanistic insight, and environmental relevance
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36059010/

Abstract

Pollution is a significant and growing concern for any population regardless of age because these environmental contaminants exhibit different neurodegenerative effects on persons of different ages. These environmental contaminants are the products of human welfare projects like industry, automobile exhaust, clinical and research laboratory extrudes, and agricultural chemicals. These contaminants are found in various forms in environmental matrices like nanoparticles, particulate matter, lipophilic vaporized toxicants, and ultrafine particulate matter. Because of their small size, they can easily cross blood-brain barriers or use different cellular mechanisms for assistance. Other than this, these contaminants cause an innate immune response in different cells of the central nervous system and cause neurotoxicity. Considering the above critiques and current needs, this review summarizes different protective strategies based on bioactive compounds present in plants. Various bioactive compounds from medicinal plants with neuroprotective capacities are discussed with relevant examples. Many in vitro studies on clinical trials have shown promising outcomes using plant-based bioactive compounds against neurological disorders.
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