Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
Emerging role of air pollution in autoimmune diseases.
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a broad spectrum of disorders featured by the body's immune responses being directed against its own tissues, resulting in prolonged inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. Recently, the exposure to ambient air pollution has been implicated in the occurrence and development of ADs. Mechanisms linking air pollution exposures and ADs mainly include systemic inflammation, increased oxidative stress, epigenetic modifications induced by exposures and immune response caused by airway damage. The lung may be an autoimmunity initiation site in autoimmune diseases (ADs). Air pollutants can bind to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to regulate Th17 and Treg cells. Oxidative stress and inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissue caused by the pollutants can influence T, B cells, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines stimulate B cell and dendritic cells, resulting in a lot of antibodies and self-reactive T lymphocytes. Moreover, air pollutants may induce epigenetic changes to contribute to ADs. In this review, we will concern the associations between air pollution and immune-inflammatory responses, as well as mechanisms linking air pollution exposure and autoimmunity. In addition, we focus on the potential roles of air pollution in major autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences, Department of Neurology, Afyon, Turkey
Air pollution, a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis
Studies focusing attention on the effects of environmental pollution on the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) are on the increase. The aim of this study was to determine MS prevalence in a city home to an iron-and-steel factory which causes air pollution.
The study was designed as a cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive epidemiologic study. Ereğli city, which has an iron-and-steel factory and proven air pollution, was screened. Additionally, Devrek city, which is a rural and clean city, located 40 km away from Ereğli, was assigned and results were compared. A validated questionnaire was used for screening. McDonald 2010 criteria was used to diagnose cases.
32,261 people were screened in Ereğli and 21,963 people were screened in Devrek. In total, 41 patients were diagnosed with clinical definite MS. Crude prevalence was found to be 96.1/100,000 in Ereğli and 45.5/100,000 in Devrek. The mean age of patients was 39.8 and the female/male ratio was 1.9.
The results of this study indicate a more than double MS prevalence rate in the area home to an iron-and-steel factory when compared to the rural city. This supports the hypothesis that air pollution may be a possible etiological factor in MS.
School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Road Proximity, Air Pollution, Noise, Green Space and Neurologic Disease Incidence: A Population-Based Cohort Study
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3196441 ... ort-study/
Background: Emerging evidence links road proximity and air pollution with cognitive impairment. Joint effects of noise and greenness have not been evaluated. We investigated associations between road proximity and exposures to air pollution, and joint effects of noise and greenness, on non-Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis within a population-based cohort.
Methods: We assembled administrative health database cohorts of 45-84 year old residents (N ~ 678,000) of Metro Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazards models were built to assess associations between exposures and non-Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease. Given reduced case numbers, associations with Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis were evaluated in nested case-control analyses by conditional logistic regression.
Results: Road proximity was associated with all outcomes (e.g. non-Alzheimer's dementia hazard ratio: 1.14, [95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.20], for living < 50 m from a major road or < 150 m from a highway). Air pollutants were associated with incidence of Parkinson's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia (e.g. Parkinson's disease hazard ratios of 1.09 [1.02-1.16], 1.03 [0.97-1.08], 1.12 [1.05-1.20] per interquartile increase in fine particulate matter, Black Carbon, and nitrogen dioxide) but not Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Noise was not associated with any outcomes while associations with greenness suggested protective effects for Parkinson's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia.
Conclusions: Road proximity was associated with incidence of non-Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. This association may be partially mediated by air pollution, whereas noise exposure did not affect associations. There was some evidence of protective effects of greenness.
Nature Reviews Neurology
Air Pollution Linked to Multiple Sclerosis and Stroke
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3203429 ... nd-stroke/
no abstract, never mind, it is logical anyway - I think.
Maybe this problem could be solved - your opinions
https://ereska.net/viewtopic.php?f=17&t ... 576#p10576
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